Thursday, 3 December 2020

Dynamic Domain Name System (DDNS), Web Hosting, Domain Name, Web Hosting Certification, Compare Web Hosting

When DNS (Domain Name System) was designed, nobody expected that there would be so many address changes such as adding a new host, removing a host, or changing an IP address. When there is a change, the change must be made to the DNS master file which needs a lot of manual updating and it must be updated dynamically.

Dynamic Domain Name System (DDNS):

It is a method of automatically updating a name server in the Domain Name Server (DNS), often in real-time, with the active DDNS configuration of its configured hostnames, addresses, or other information. In DDNS, when a binding between a name and an address is determined, the information is sent, usually by DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) to a primary DNS server.

The primary server updates the zone. The secondary servers are notified either actively or passively. Inactive notification, the primary server sends a message to secondary servers, whereas, in the passive notification, the secondary servers periodically check for any changes. In either case, after being notified about the change, the secondary requests information about the entire zone (zone transfer).

DDNS can use an authentication mechanism to provide security and prevent unauthorized changes in DNS records.


1. It saves time required by static addresses updates manually when network configuration changes.

2. It saves space as the number of addresses are used as required at one time rather than using one for all the possible users of the IP address.

3. It is very comfortable for users point of view as any IP address changes will not affect any of their activities.

4. It does not affect accessibility as changed IP addresses are configured automatically against URL’s.


1. It is less reliable due to lack of static IP addresses and domain name mappings.

2. Dynamic DNS services alone can not make any guarantee about the device you are attempting to connect is actually your own.


1. It is used for Internet access devices such as routers.

2. It is used for for security appliance manufacturers and even required for IP-based security appliances like DVRs.

Friday, 27 November 2020

The most common network devices used are routers and switches. But we still hear people talking about hubs, repeaters, and bridges. Do you ever wonder why these former devices are preferred over the latter ones? One reason could be: ‘because they are more efficient and powerful’. But what actually is the reason behind their efficiency? This is when terms like “Collision Domains” and “Broadcast Domains” come into picture.

Before going further, let us recall that a hub is a multiple-port repeater. Similarly, a switch is a multiple-port bridge so that you can understand why repeaters and bridges are not typically used in production networks(because of less number of ports).

Now, narrowing down to Hubs, Switches and Routers, let us discuss them in reference with the blow domains.

1. Collision Domain –

A Collision Domain is a scenario in which when a device sends out a message to the network, all other devices which are included in its collision domain have to pay attention to it, no matter if it was destined for them or not. This causes a problem because, in a situation where two devices send out their messages simultaneously, a collision will occur leading them to wait and re-transmit their respective messages, one at a time. Remember, it happens only in case of a half-duplex mode.

2. Broadcast Domain –

A Broadcast Domain is a scenario in which when a device sends out a broadcast message, all the devices present in its broadcast domain have to pay attention to it. This creates a lot of congestion in the network, commonly called LAN congestion, which affects the bandwidth of the users present in that network.

From this, we can realize that more the number of collision domains and more the number of broadcast domains, the more efficient is the network providing better bandwidth to all its users.

So, which of our network devices break collision domains and which of them break broadcast domains?

◉ HUB –

We start with a hub because we should get rid of it as soon as possible. The reason being, it neither breaks a collision domain nor a broadcast domain,i.e a hub is neither a collision domain separator nor a broadcast domain separator. All the devices connected to a hub is in a single collision and single broadcast domain. Remember, hubs do not segment a network, they just connect network segments.


Coming to switches, we have an advantage over the hub. Every port on a switch is in a different collision domain, i.e a switch is a collision domain separator. So messages that come from devices connected to different ports never experience a collision. This helps us during designing networks but there is still a problem with switches. They never break broadcast domains, means it is not a broadcast domain separator. All the ports on the switch are in still in a single broadcast domain. If a device sends a broadcast message, it will still cause congestion.


Last, but not least, we have our savior. A router not only breaks collision domains but also break broadcast domains, means it is both collision as well as broadcast domain separator. A router creates a connection between two networks. A broadcast message from one network will never reach the other one as the router will never let it pass.

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Also, as repeaters and bridges differ from hubs and switches only in terms of the number of ports, a repeater does not break collision and broadcast domains, while a bridge breaks only collision domains.

Wednesday, 25 November 2020

1. Trade Mark:

A trade name is a name used to register a business as a legal entity within the state where it operates. Usually, this is often done at the Secretary of State or the Department of Corporations, or an identical state-run agency. A trade name must be unique within the state where it is registered. The trade name is additionally registered with the interior Revenue Service for purposes of federal tax laws.

A trademark can be a sign or symbol which represents graphically and it is capable of differentiating the products or services of 1 undertaking from those of other undertakings. An application for registration of a trademark shall be made to the Trade Marks Registry of the Property Department). The owner of a registered trademark has the prerogative to use the trademark in reference to the products and services that the mark is registered within the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Example :

When the officer of an organization signs an agreement, he signs it as “CFO of XYZ Corporation.” Anyone who wants to see the status of that legal entity can interrogate XYZ Corporation on the records of the year of its state. For that reason, contracts normally will state the party to the contract and include something like this: “A Delaware indebtedness company” because that information allows someone to research the status of the business.

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2. Domain Name :

A domain name is an entry during a database—like a line during a spreadsheet. That entry corresponds to an online protocol address. A website name may be a website address on the web which provides you a web identity. A website name may be a human-readable Internet address, e.g, It is the name that users/customers type into their Internet browsers to access your website. The proper to use a website name is regulated by name registrars.

You will obtain a website name by purchasing it from the registrar for your particular name. An application to register a website name under country code top-level domain(e.g. or a generic top-level domain (e.g. .com) shall be made to at least one of the registrars. A website name is often registrable as a trademark if it functions to spot the source of particular goods or services.

Example :

It includes the utilization of the name on the particular pages of an internet site offering services, offline use of the name as something quite just a URL address, like the use of the name on marketing or promotional materials for services, and use of the name on the packaging for a product.

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Difference Between Trademark and Domain Name :

A trade mark may consist of words, designs, letters, numerals, colors, the shape of goods or their packaging etc. and any combination of such signs. A domain name must be contextual in for (e.g.
A trade mark would be registered in respect of the goods or services as classified under the Nice Classification.  A domain name does not have to be registered for a particular class of goods or services.
A registered trade mark is valid for 10 years and can be renewed for further periods of 10 years.  A domain name is only for a particular period as agreed between the registrant and the accredited registrar and these are subject to renewal.
A trade mark may not be registrable if it is different or similar to a previously registered trade mark.  A domain name is registrable if it is not different to a previously registered domain name.
A trade mark which consists exclusively of a sign or a symbol which describes the characteristics for the applied-of goods or services may not be registrable. Symbols such as “fresh bread” in respect of bakery services.  A domain name may describe the features of the application-of goods or services, e.g. “” for a bakery.
Trademark operates in the real world.  Domain name operates in the cyber world.
Different people living in different countries may have the same trademark for different goods and services as it does not generally have a global impact on it.  Domain names operates at a global level and so no two companies/persons can be having the same domain name.
Trademark can refer to or linked to a specific category of a product or products line.  The domain names are not given for every single product offered by a company.
As there are no jurisdiction issues, the dispute related to a trademark can be easily settled.  As the internet is very wide and does not any any boundries, so the disputes are hard to be settled.

Tuesday, 24 November 2020

In the Classful addressing the no of Hosts within a network always remains the same depending upon the class of the Network.

Class A network contains 2 (24) Hosts,

Class B network contains 2 (16) Hosts,

Class C network contains 2 (8) Hosts 

Now, let’s suppose an Organization requires 2(14) hosts, then it must have to purchase a Class B network. In this case, 49152 Hosts will be wasted. This is the major drawback of Classful Addressing.

In order to reduce the wastage of IP addresses a new concept of Classless Inter-Domain Routing is introduced. Now a days IANA is using this technique to provide the IP addresses. Whenever any user asks for IP addresses, IANA is going to assign that many IP addresses to the User.

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Representation: It is as also a 32-bit address, which includes a special number which represents the number of bits that are present in the Block Id.

a . b . c . d / n 

Where, n is number of bits that are present in Block Id / Network Id.


Rules for forming CIDR Blocks:

1. All IP addresses must be contiguous.
2. Block size must be the power of 2 (2n).

If the size of the block is the power of 2, then it will be easy to divide the Network. Finding out the Block Id is very easy if the block size is of the power of 2.


If the Block size is 2(5) then, Host Id will contain 5 bits and Network will contain 32 – 5 = 27 bits.

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3. First IP address of the Block must be evenly divisible by the size of the block. in simple words, the least significant part should always start with zeroes in Host Id. Since all the least significant bits of Host Id is zero, then we can use it as Block Id part.


Check whether to is a valid IP address block or not?

1. All the IP addresses are contiguous.
2. Total number of IP addresses in the Block = 16 = 2(4).
3. 1st IP address:

Since, Host Id will contains last 4 bits and all the least significant 4 bits are zero. Hence, first IP address is evenly divisible by the size of the block.

All the three rules are followed by this Block. Hence, it is a valid IP address block.

Wednesday, 11 November 2020

A Domain Name System (DNS) converts a human-readable name (such as to Numeric IP-address. The DNS system response one or more IP-address by which your computer connects to a website (such as by using one of the IP-address.

There is not only one DNS server. There are series of DNS server used to resolve the domain name. DNS uses cache to work efficiently so that it can quickly refer to DNS lookups it’s already performed rather than performing a DNS lookup over and over again.

Although DNS caching increase the speed for domain name resolution process But the major change in the domain then it takes a day to reflect worldwide.

DNS Spoofing means getting a wrong entry or IP-address of the requested site from DNS server. Attackers find out the flaws in DNS system and take control and will redirect to a malicious website.

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In above image –

1. Request to Real Website: User hit a request for paticular website it goes to DNS server to resolve the ip-address of that website.

2. Inject Fake DNS entry: Hackers already take control over the DNS server by detecting the flaws and now they add false entry in DNS server.

3. Resolve to Fake Website: Since fake entry in DNS server redirect user to wrong website.

To Prevent From DNS Spoofing –

DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) is used to add an additional layer of security in DNS resolution process to prevent security threats such as DNS Spoofing or DNS cache poisoning.
DNSSEC protects against such attacks by digitally ‘signing’ data so you can be assured it is valid.

Wednesday, 4 November 2020

Prerequisite – Domain Name System (DNS) in Application Layer

In the world of networking, computers do not represent by names like humans do, they represent by numbers because that is how computers and other similar devices talk and identify with each other over a network, which is by using numbers such as IP addresses.

Humans on the other hand are accustomed to using names instead of numbers, whether is talking directly to another person or identifying a country, place, or things, humans identify with names instead of numbers. So in order to bridge the communication gap between computers and humans and make the communication of a lot easier networking engineers developed DNS. 

DNS stands for a Domain Name System.

DNS resolves names to numbers, to be more specific it resolves domain names to IP addresses. So if you type in a web address in your web browser, DNS will resolve the name to a number because the only thing computers know are numbers. 

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If you wanted to go to a certain website you would open up your web browser and type in domain name of that website. Let us use Now technically you really do not have to type in to retrieve Google web page, you can just type in IP address instead if you already knew what IP address was, but since we are not accustomed to memorizing and dealing with numbers, especially when there are millions of websites on Internet, we can just type in domain name instead and let DNS convert it to an IP address for us. 

So back to our example, when you typing on your web browser DNS server with search through its cache to find a matching IP address for that domain name, and when it finds it it will resolve that domain name to IP address of Google web site, and once that is done then your computer is able to communicate with a Google web srver and retrieve webpage. 

So DNS basically works like a phone book, when you want to find a number, you do not look up number first, you look up name first then it will give you number. So to break this down into further detail let us examine steps that DNS takes. So when you type in in your web browser and if your web browser or operating system cannot find IP address in its own cache memory, it will send query to next level to what is called resolver server. Resolver server is basically your ISP or Internet service provider, so when resolver receives query, it will check its own cache memory to find an IP address for, and if it cannot find it it will send query to next level which is root server. The root servers are top of root of a DNS hierarchy. 

There are 13 sets of these root servers from to and they are strategically placed around world, and they are operated by 12 different organizations and each set of these root servers has their own unique IP address. So when root server receives query for IP address for, root server is not going to know what IP address is, but root server does know where to send resolver to help it find IP address. So root server will direct resolver to TLD or top-level domain server for .com domain. So resolver will now ask TLD server for IP address for 

The top-level domain server stores address information for top-level domains such as .com and .net, .org, and so on. This particular TLD server manages .com domain which is a part of. So when a TLD server receives query for IP address for, TLD server is not going to know what IP addresses for So the TLD will direct resolver to next and final level, which are authoritative name servers. So once again the resolver will now ask authoritative name server for IP address for Authoritative name server or servers are responsible for knowing everything about domain which includes IP address. 

They are final authority. 

So when the authoritative name server receives query from resolver, name server will respond with IP address for And finally, resolver will tell your computer IP address for and then your computer can now retrieve google web page. It is important to note that once resolver receives IP address, it will store it in its cache memory in case it receives another query for So it does not have to go through all those steps again.

DNS servers has different types of records to manage resolution efficiently and provide important information about a domain. These records are the details which are cached bu DNS servers. Each records have a TTL(Time To Live) value in seconds associated with it, these values set time for the expiration of cached record in DNS server which ranges to 60 to 86400 depending on the DNS provider.

◉ A records – points to IPv4 address of machine where website is hosted
◉ AAAA records – points to IPv6 address of machine where website is hosted
◉ MX – points to email servers
◉ CNAME – canonical name for alias points hostname to hostname
◉ ANAME – Auto resolved alias, works like cname but points hostname to IP of hostname
◉ NS – nameservers for subdomains
◉ PTR – IP address to hostname
◉ SOA  – containing administrative information about the DNS zone
◉ SRV – service record for other services
◉ TXT – Text records mostly used for verification, SPF, DKIM, DMARC and more
◉ CAA – certificate authority record for SSL/TLS certificate

DNSSEC(Domain Name System Security Extensions) are the cryptographic suite of authentication protocols added to the DNS to protect it from malicious actors  from using forged or manipulated DNS data, such as that created by DNS cache poisoning by digitally signing DNS zones. DNSSEC does not provide confidentiality of data; in particular, all DNSSEC responses are authenticated but not encrypted. DNSSEC is still yet to be implemented by some registrars and registrys

Monday, 2 November 2020

Increased mobility of the devices, the concept of remote access to a network, and many more opportunities like these have complicated the complete task of preventing hackers from accessing your private data.

In most fatal attacks, an attacker can take down your complete website without even accessing your system. An attacker could take advantage of the Internet to divert your website visitors and other incoming data before they reach your network. Here DNS system is the key. It is the first line of defense and plays a major role in data security.

What is DNS?

DNS- Domain Name System is a hierarchical naming system that is used for computers, services, or any other resource or device that is connected to the Internet. Or we can say that in simple language, DNS translates more readily memorized domain names to numerical IP Addresses needed for locating and identifying devices and services with the underlying network protocols.

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A DNS server encompasses all the Domain Names and their corresponding IP Addresses. Whenever you enter a URL-

◉ Your browser will send IP Request (domain name- For example to the DNS Server.
◉ DNS Server will match the corresponding IP address of this URL and directs your browser to the website.

DNS system is essential as the browser is unable to understand the alphabetic URL and can only process the numerical IP Address.

What do you mean by DNS Leak?

As we have discussed above, DNS acts as a correspondent between the Internet and your device. However, in the case of default DNS settings, the online activities of the user are visible to the ISP or anyone with legal or illegal access to the DNS Server.
To eradicate such situations, many individuals tend to use VPN-Virtual Private Network, which helps to create a safe and virtual connection over the Internet. Adding a VPN pushes all the DNS requests and data through a VPN tunnel.

Unfortunately with pros there comes the cons. VPN Servers are not 100% secure, they could leak DNS requests. This is known as DNS Leak. Thus we can say DNS Leak is a security flaw, that exposes DNS requests to ISP DNS Servers.

Ways to check DNS Leak –

Checking DNS Leak is a very simple task. There are so many one-click testing tools available in the market to test DNS vulnerabilities. 

How a DNS Leak Test Work?

The answer is very simple if you are behind the VPN and perform a DNS Leak Test.

◉ The result should be the same IP where you have connected through a VPN.
◉ If you see your ISP on the list, it points to a DNS Leak.
◉ The lists which are not directed under your VPN Service could signal a leak.

Try not to select a DNS Leak Test tool offered by any VPN Service. VPN Service these days are developing their tools and using it as a bait to scare users and sell their products.

What are the major DNS Leak Issues?

In this section, we will be discussing major issues contributing to DNS Leak.

1. Irregular Network Configuration: When connecting to VPN, connect your device first to the local network. Ensure proper settings as DHCP settings can sometimes automatically assigns a DNS Server when you connect to a new network and this could be your ISP DNS Server.

2. IPv6 Leak: Most VPNs have IPv4 support and they are unable to handle any request to or from an IPv6 device. The request sent from the machine using a dual-stack tunnel which converts IPv4 to IPv6 couldn’t be handled by these VPNs. Therefore, the DNS request eventually goes to the DNS Server and DNS leak causes real IP to expose.

3. Transparent DNS Proxies: In cases where ISPs detect users changing their DNS Server setting to a third-party server, they enforce their own DNS Servers. This transparent server will interrupt the user web traffic and send it to the ISP DNS Server. Such types of servers can be detected through DNS Leak Test.

4. Teredo Technology: Mircosoft has introduced Teredo Technology to resolve the issue of IPv6 and IPv4. However, in the case of VPN, it can still cause DNS Leak as it is a tunneling protocol and it is capable of bypassing VPNs encrypted tunnel too.

5. Windows OS Versions 8, 8.1, and 10: Windows feature Smart Multi-Homed Name Resolution has been introduced in Windows 8 and later versions. This feature tends to send the request to all available DNS Servers. It makes sure that the response from the non-standard server is only acceptable in case favorites fail to respond. Most probably, that ISP DNS response is accepted which eventually results in DNS Leak.

How to Prevent DNS Leak?

◉ Encrypt DNS requests using DNS over HTTPS or DNS over TLS.
◉ Use VPN Client which sends DNS requests over the VPN.
◉ Use Firewalls to disable DNS on the whole device or setting DNS servers to non-existing ones like or
◉ Use anonymous browsers like Tor Browser, which makes user anonymous and doesn’t require any DNS to be set up on the operating system.
◉ Use your own DNS resolving server.
◉ Use Cloudflare DNS Server.
◉ Use proxy or VPN, system-wide, via third-party app helpers like Proxifier or in the form of a web browser extension.

Friday, 30 October 2020

Shared Web Hosting, Web Hosting, Web Hosting Guides

Shared web hosting is the most popular hosting solution purchased from hundreds of web host companies all over the world. The sheer size of the huge market of shared solutions often causes problems to customers since most people purchasing shared plans are new to web technologies, and usually do not know what to pay look for when choosing a good hosting package.

How to Choose Proper Web Hosting Package

Web hosting is a complex of functions and hardware features; thus, you need to understand some technical processes in order to find for a proper solution. The system is not complicated at all—you just have to keep in mind that the abundance of unlimited features awarded by a certain web host does not mean that their shared plan is exactly what you need. Of course, it would be great if you could just consult a web master who would explain what features you will need for this or that online project. If you don't have that option, read on to understand some key facts about shared hosting plans and choose a proper solution.

Key Features of Shared Hosting

Here are five most relevant features included into shared hosting packages:

The Essentials: Disk Space & Traffic

Let's start with the basics. When you want to host a website on the web, you need some disk space that will be used for things like different code files, databases, and media. That's when you need a certain amount of disk space. Logically, the smaller your website is, the less importance this feature has. Now that you have hosted some files and made them into a website, you will want users to access that data. That's when bandwidth comes in. Imagine a tunnel: the wider the tunnel is, the more information can pass through it. Bandwidth works the same way. Many web hosts offer unlimited bandwidth but restrict traffic speed, which can also influence the performance of your website. Pay attention to bandwidth and traffic speed when searching for a good shared plan. Again, the bigger your website will be, the more disk space you will need. Additional hard drive security is very good, but typically this feature is not included in shared packages.


Uptime is the time when your website works online and when users can access the site without any problems. It is usually measured in percentages from the total expected uptime (twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week). Of course, it depends if your website has to be online one hundred percent of the time.. Normally, if you purchase shared hosting, your project is not too big, so you don't really need 100% uptime. In such cases, the level of 98% is common. When choosing a hosting plan, do not pay much attention to what companies say about their uptime-- they only use best servers for their company website while you may get a worse one. Still, if you want to know the actual online rate, use some independent web projects to measure this number for you; likewise, you can check out some forums or ask you friends for advice. You also have to pay attention to different security features included in the plan, which will ensure better safety for your server. Be aware that most web host companies do not include pricey security options into cheap shared plans (for example, your server will be more secure if the package includes RAID, server backup, manual server restart, advanced network architecture, or other similar services).


Support is extremely important. If you are new to web hosting, support will be your eyes, hands, and everything else. That's why we advise that you browse the web and check different reviews for information about support of your web host candidates. Also browse through forums where users discuss web hosting to give you an insider’s review. Why is support so important? When making your first steps in hosting management, you will have many questions, and many of them will require immediate answers--that's why the working speed of customer support is so crucial.

Pre-Installed Apps

Many web host companies include so many additional features into their shared plans that it's becomes a giant mess. They will offer some unlimited options, pre-installed apps, extra-fee services, and the like. Concentrate on the pre-installed apps, which are special widgets that help you create a website quickly and manage it more efficiently. One of the most basic apps is the control panel. If your shared plan includes a control panel, you can breathe a sigh of relief. Life gets much easier with one, as you will be able to control the most complicated server processes through a very convenient interface. The most popular control panel is cPanel, but some web hosts of will offer you an alternative — Zpanel, Webmin, Virtualmin, or even their own customized control panel (which is not always so good as it sounds). Now, most control panels have some apps and add-ons pre-installed, so you can switch some important functions on with only one click, like eCommerce tools such as payment instruments or shopping carts. You can also have a CMS like WordPress or Joomla available for quick automatic installation. Note that all those extras are only reasonable if you need them. If you have someone make you a promo website or a portfolio, most of those features are not necessary.

Free Bonuses

Finally, we get to the sweetest thing about shared plans. Since the market of shared web hosting is so big, different companies try to attract more clients by offering free bonuses. Some of them will offer a free domain name, website transfer, site-building tools, or some other nice features. Of course, this great and convenient, so the more free bonuses you get, the better the deal. When it comes to free bonuses, the main item that needs your attention is the so-called “renewal fees.” What happens here is that the company will grant you the first year of domain usage free, but later on you will have to pay yearly fees. As always, examine the user agreement thoroughly if a company offers you free features. Choosing a shared package is very subjective. You have to spend some time considering the requirements for your website so that you know what features are priorities and what features are non-essentials. Remember to keep pricing and reliability at the forefront.Your web host must have a good reliability-price ratio.

Wednesday, 28 October 2020

Cloud Services, Hosted Services, Web Hosting, Hosting Reviews, Compare Web Hosting

It seems as if everyone has their own definition of cloud services and hosted services. In truth, hosted and cloud services are very similar — both are off-premises and are accessed through an Internet connection. While some believe that these services are essentially the same, experts argue that cloud services are more interrelated with other web-based offerings. When it comes down to it, the main difference between hosted and cloud services is multi-tenancy.

What Is Multi-tenancy?

According to Gartner, "Multitenancy refers to the mode of operation of software where multiple independent instances of one or multiple applications operate in a shared environment. The instances (tenants) are logically isolated but physically integrated. The degree of logical isolation must be complete, but the degree of physical integration will vary. The more physical integration, the harder it is to preserve the logical isolation. The tenants (application instances) can be representations of organizations that obtained access to the multitenant application (this is the scenario of ISV offering services of an application to multiple customer organizations)."

In other words, multi-tenancy implements the sharing of resources and costs among a large pool of users and allows infrastructure to be concentrated in locations with lower costs, maximizing peak-load capacity and improving utilization and efficiency in systems that are often only used up to 10 to 20% of the time. Hosted services generally do not offer the same cost efficiencies, elasticity, or reliability as cloud services. 

The cloud provider benefits of multi-tenancy are amplified by only having to support a single version of software, the uniformity of its hardware environment, and its efficiency. The general rule is that if a solution is not multi-tenant, then it isn't a cloud solution, and won't have the same benefits.

What Are Hosted Services?

Hosted services are technology services offered by a provider hosting physical servers that are removed from the customer’s premise. A hosted service provider owns and oversees infrastructure, software, and administrative tasks at a private location. The hosted service system is available to clients, typically through a direct network connection that uses the Internet (VPN, Remote Desktop, etc.). There are three main elements of hosted services: 

◉ Software as a Service (SaaS)

◉ Platform as a Service (PaaS)

◉ Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

These three combined encompass software, network capacity, and the equipment used to support operations such as storage, hardware, servers, and networking components.

What Are The Benefits of Hosted Services?

Hosted services are generally very secure and provide a wide range of services, data warehousing, off-site backup, and more. When thinking about hosted services in the real-world, you actually come across them most days. Some examples of common hosted services include:

◉ Virtual server hosting

◉ Security

◉ File hosting

◉ Website hosting

◉ Email

What Are Cloud Services?

Cloud services are a subset of hosted services. Hosted services, even those accessible using the Internet, cannot be referred to as real cloud solutions unless they have been built to capitalize on the collaboration and interconnectivity that is a fundamental part of the cloud. Cloud applications are web-enabled, meaning, instead of being based on physical hardware, they are based in a shared virtual environment managed by a cloud-hosting provider. Only server installation and a device with an Internet connection are needed for cloud services. Many line-of-business (LOB) applications are adding cloud services to their offering. Cloud servers can be constructed to provide varying levels of performance, security, and control to configure to your business’s needs.

What Are the Benefits of Cloud Services?

Cloud servers allow your business to optimize IT performance without the overwhelming costs associated with the purchase and management of fully dedicated infrastructure. These cloud servers are the ideal fit for businesses of variable demands and workloads. The most significant benefit of cloud services compared to hosted services is the scalability of solutions while remaining relatively affordable for most businesses. When selecting cloud services, the expenses related to the equipment and maintenance of the data center or colocation facility are spread across everyone within the facility.

Cloud services offer on-demand utilities, multi-tenancy features with seamless uninterrupted scaling, and features that are sure to meet your business’ needs to adapt and help you meet the demands of your client base.

Cloud Services vs. Hosted Services

When it comes down to cloud services vs. hosted services, there is no right or wrong answer when selecting one. It’s up to the organization to evaluate their needs and wants to select the best service. Today’s cloud services and hosted services have something to offer to everyone, so take your time to ensure you select the right service for your company.

Friday, 23 October 2020

Understanding DNS

Understanding DNSSEC first requires basic knowledge of how the DNS system works.

The DNS is used to translate domain names (like into numeric Internet addresses (like

Although this address system is very efficient for computers to read and process the data, it is extremely difficult for people to remember. Let’s say that every time when you need to check a website, you should remember the IP address of the machine where it is located. People often call the DNS system the "phone book of the Internet".

To solve this problem, a numeric IP address was attached to every domain name. The website addresses we know are actually domain names.

Domain name information is stored and accessed on special servers, known as domain name servers, that convert domain names into IP addresses and vice versa.

The top level of the DNS resides in the root zone where all IP addresses and domain names are kept in databases and sorted by top-level domain name, such as .com, .net, .org, etc.

When the DNS was first implemented, it was not secured, and soon after being put into use, several vulnerabilities were discovered. As a result, a security system was developed in the form of extensions that could be added to the existing DNS protocols.

Domain name system security extensions (DNSSEC) are a set of protocols that add a layer of security to the domain name system (DNS) lookup and exchange processes, which have become integral in accessing websites through the Internet.

Advantages of DNSSEC

DNSSEC is aimed at strengthening trust in the Internet by helping to protect users from redirection to fraudulent websites and unintended addresses. In such a way, malicious activities like cache poisoning, pharming, and man-in-the-middle attacks can be prevented.

DNSSEC authenticates the resolution of IP addresses with a cryptographic signature, to make sure that answers provided by the DNS server are valid and authentic. In case DNSSEC is properly enabled for your domain name, the visitors can be ensured that they are connecting to the actual website corresponding to a particular domain name.

How DNSSEC Works

The original purpose of DNSSEC was to protect Internet clients from counterfeit DNS data by verifying digital signatures embedded in the data.

When a visitor enters the domain name in a browser, the resolver verifies the digital signature.

If the digital signatures in the data match those that are stored in the master DNS servers, then the data is allowed to access the client computer making the request.

The DNSSEC digital signature ensures that you're communicating with the site or Internet location you intended to visit.

DNSSEC uses a system of public keys and digital signatures to verify data. It simply adds new records to DNS alongside existing records. These new record types, such as RRSIG and DNSKEY, can be retrieved in the same way as common records such as A, CNAME and MX.

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These new records are used to digitally "sign" a domain, using a method known as public key cryptography.

A signed nameserver has a public and private key for each zone. When someone makes a request, it sends information signed with its private key; the recipient then unlocks it with the public key. If a third party tries to send untrustworthy information, it won’t unlock properly with the public key, so the recipient will know the information is bogus.

Note that DNSSEC does not provide data confidentiality because it does not include encryption algorithms. It only carries the keys required to authenticate DNS data as genuine or genuinely not available.

Also, DNSSEC does not protect against DDoS Attacks.

Keys used by DNSSEC

There are two types of keys that are used by DNSSEC:

The zone signing key (ZSK) - is used to sign and validate the individual record sets within the zone.

The key signing key (KSK) - is used to sign the DNSKEY records in the zone.

Both of these keys are stored as "DNSKEY" records in the zone file.

Viewing the DS record

The DS record stands for Delegation Signer, and it contains a unique string of your public key as well as metadata about the key, such as what algorithm it uses.

Each DS record consists of four fields: KeyTag, Algorithm, DigestType and Digest and it looks like the following:

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We can break up different components of the DS record to see what information each part holds:

◉ - domain name that the DS is for.

◉ 3600 - TTL, the time that the record may remain in cache.

◉ IN stands for internet.

◉ 2371 - Key Tag, ID of the key.

◉ 13 - algorithm type. Each allowed algorithm in DNSSEC has a specified number. Algorithm 13 is ECDSA with a P-256 curve using SHA-256.

◉ 2 - Digest Type, or the hash function that was used to generate the digest from the public key.

◉ The long string at the end is the Digest, or the hash of the public key.

All DS records must comply with RFC 3658.

You can always use the DNSSEC Debugger in order to find out if there are any issues with the domain name settings.

Friday, 16 October 2020

DNS resolvers play a key role in converting Web links to IP addresses, acting as a link between your computer and the Internet's DNS infrastructure. A DNS resolver is a local server that stores a central database of DNS nameservers and manages DNS requests for all the clients on your network. With DNS resolvers, your computer does not need to store addresses for multiple online nameservers, a process which is difficult to manage effectively.

How DNS Works

DNS systems allow network clients to convert Universal Resource Locators, or URLs, into IP addresses. This is a key part of network operation, as computers and other devices generally need to know each other's IP address in order to communicate over a network. When you provide your computer with a Web link, the computer issues a DNS request asking for the IP address that corresponds to that address. The DNS then responds with the corresponding address, allowing the computer to communicate with the server that hosts that site.

Role of Resolvers

A DNS resolver is a server that acts as a “first port of call” in the DNS process. When a network client contacts a resolver, that resolver contacts multiple authoritative nameservers -- the servers that actually hold the IP address information -- in order to get the necessary IP address. DNS requests may involve nameservers all over the world.

Increased Efficiency

DNS resolvers increase the efficiency of a DNS system. Without resolvers, every computer on a network would need to be provided with the addresses of several authoritative nameservers in order to resolve addresses. In addition, each computer's server list would need to be kept up to date individually. Using resolvers means that all the clients on a network have access to a central list of authoritative nameservers, reducing the management time needed to keep the system current.

Performance Benefits

Some DNS resolvers cache the results they send to clients. This means that if another client requests the same IP address at a later time, the resolver can provide that IP address directly without having to contact any external nameservers. Storing results locally improves DNS response time and helps to reduce network load, because certain DNS results do not need to leave the local network in order to be fulfilled.

Monday, 12 October 2020

Free Website Hosting, Web Hosting Reviews, Web Hosting Guides, Compare Web Hosting
As the name suggests, free website hosting is a free non-paid web hosting service. There are many web hosts who provide subdomains to anyone who want to make website. Some of such popular free web hosts include Blogger and Wordpress. When you make your websites with these free website hosting services, your website gets such name as and If you want to get a website with a domain name that doesn’t include any external site’s name, you must buy domain and then get web hosting which is usually a paid service. However, there are many web hosting companies that provide free web hosting with some or the other products/services that you buy from them.

Benefits of Free Website Hosting

There is this single biggest advantage of free website hosting and that is- it comes free without any cost. Now if you are amazed at why these free web hosting companies let you make a website free of cost then you may rest assured that they do not make any loss in this business. When you make your free website with them, they use your websites to place advertisements, banners and other forms of advertising media to earn revenue. Sometimes, the revenue from advertisement is shared with the owner of the website and sometimes it’s not. For example, when you get free web hosting from blogger and if you use their AdSense service, you get a share in the revenue generated from the advertisements that they place on your websites. On the other hand, when you make a free website using wordpress, you do not have any control on the placement or revenue generated from your free hosted website. The situation is altogether different when you get website hosted through paid web hosting service. You have full control over your website and it’s your decision whether you want to place advertisements on your site or not and if yes then the whole of the revenue generated from the website advertisement banners come to you only. There are many other differences between free and paid web hosting services.

Differences between Free and Paid Web Hosting

Here are some major differences between free and paid website hosting services. It will give you a better understanding about what is free web hosting service and whether it’s worth to opt for such free hosting for websites?

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Advertisements on your website are controlled by the web hosting company that provides you with the free web hosting. It can use pop-ups, banners or any other advertisement on your site on which you do not have control. If also you have partial control, you may only decide what size of banner would be displayed where on your site. You won’t have control over what advertisement you will show on the website. On the contrary, when you avail paid web hosting, you have full control over your website and no outsider can decide anything for it.

Customer support is missing for free website hosting. Something which comes free cannot be asked to come with value added services. If something goes wrong with your website, there’s no customer support for websites made with free hosting. On the other hand, paid web hosting services not only give technical support to the customers but they also provide them with help guides, tutorials etc.

Low bandwidth and lesser data transfer capacity makes free website hosting vulnerable to greater downtime whereas paid website hosting gives you optimum bandwidth and data transfer for maximum uptime. You also can’t upload more images or videos when using free web hosting service as you don’t get enough disk space.

However, you can have best from the both worlds if you are ready to pay a little amount for any service that a web hosting company offers. For example, we offer a good web hosting package which comes with free online website builder and you have to just pay nominal rates. You get web hosting free along with many other facilities and services like email ID and free Google Adwords credit that you may use to advertise your website. This offer is better than any free website hosting service as you get full control over your website at practically very low cost! So, why wait!

Monday, 5 October 2020

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Custom email may seem like a small dot in the ocean with regards to branding your business, but it’s undeniably important. What do we say about first impressions? They count. In just one glance, you can make a meaningful impact on your, clients, customers and/or acquaintances. As a general rule of thumb, use a custom email address to give your business legitimacy, whereas a standard (e.g. email is more appropriate for your personal stuff.

Creating a custom email address is similar to how you go about building your website. First, you need to pick an email platform to use, then install it to your custom domain. Let’s imagine Jamie’s bike shop. Shop owner Jamie wanted to distinguish himself from his rivals with a professional email address.

To set up a custom email address that matched his domain, Jamie would pick an email host. An email host will arrange that Jamie can email from Each host will offer a slightly different set of features, a different interface to access emails (a webmail client), and a range of prices.

Can I Host My Email on My Own Server?

Email hosting and web hosting are similar in the sense that neither has to be hosted by your registrar or web host providers. Emails can be routed to different servers and the routing is handled by entries in the DNS (Domain Name System) records.

By updating DNS records, it’s possible to direct different types of traffic to different servers. Making entries to CNAME records for example will create sub-domains to route traffic to different servers and/or services such as calendar, email and shared documents.

If you choose to host your own email, you’re going to need… a server. The fun doesn't stop there. Your server needs someone who knows how to manage it, so you'll want extra staff. Probably someone with an IT degree. And that's not all. You also need to consider:

◉ The expense of hardware
◉ Limited network capacity
◉ Storage limits
◉ Software licenses

The responsibility of backing up your email data. In addition to the labor costs involved in all this, these are just a few of the reasons that most businesses opt for the services of a professional email host, as opposed to running their own in-house server.

There are many challenges linked to in-house servers, including insufficient security, failed backups, difficulty syncing messages across multiple devices (desktop computers, tablets, and cell phones). These are things which can spell disaster for a business. Luckily, there are many alternatives available to avoid the challenges mentioned above.

There is a lot to be gained from choosing a hosted email provider rather than managing this yourself. With the number of options available today, there is a good fit out there for any size of business. It wouldn’t cost much to launch, but the time it takes to set one up, and effectively managing the console are the obvious reasons for subscribing to a service, instead of launching an email server of your own.

With a hosted email service, you don’t need to purchase any hardware, and it’s unlikely that you will have any software to set up. Setting up email hosting with a hosting provider is easy, you just need basic computer literacy and should be able to set the server up without much trouble.

Monday, 28 September 2020

DNS, Web Hosting, Compare Web Hosting, Web Hosting Reviews

DNS is an application layer protocol. All application layer protocols use one of the two transport layer protocols, UDP and TCP. TCP is reliable and UDP is not reliable. DNS is supposed to be reliable, but it uses UDP, why?

There are following interesting facts about TCP and UDP on the transport layer that justify the above.

1) UDP is much faster. TCP is slow as it requires 3-way handshake. The load on DNS servers is also an important factor. DNS servers (since they use UDP) don’t have to keep connections.

2) DNS requests are generally very small and fit well within UDP segments.

2) UDP is not reliable, but reliability can added on application layer. An application can use UDP and can be reliable by using a timeout and resend at the application layer.

Actually, DNS primarily uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) on port number 53 to serve requests. DNS queries consist of a single UDP request from the client followed by a single UDP reply from the server. When the length of the answer exceeds 512 bytes and both client and server support EDNS, larger UDP packets are used. Otherwise, the query is sent again using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). TCP is also used for tasks such as zone transfers. Some resolver implementations use TCP for all queries.

Monday, 21 September 2020

Cloud Server, Dedicated Server, Web Hosting, Hosting Review

Confused about your options when it comes to cloud computing and dedicated hosting for your application or website? Below, you’ll find a definition of each followed by an overview of their differences.

Cloud Servers

Cloud servers can be configured to provide levels of performance, security and control similar to those of a dedicated server. But instead of being hosted on physical hardware that’s solely used by you, they reside in a shared “virtualized” environment that’s managed by your cloud hosting provider. You benefit from the economies of scale of sharing hardware with other customers. And, you only pay for the exact amount of server space used. Cloud servers also allow you to scale resources up or down, depending on demand, so that you're not paying for idle infrastructure costs when demand is low.

With cloud servers, you can optimize IT performance without the huge costs associated with purchasing and managing fully dedicated infrastructure. Businesses with variable demands and workloads often find that cloud servers are an ideal fit.

Dedicated Servers

A dedicated server is a physical server that is purchased or rented entirely for your own business needs. Dedicated servers are typically used by large businesses and organizations that require exceptionally high levels of data security, or organizations that have steady, high demands for server capacity.

With dedicated servers, businesses still need the IT capacity and expertise to manage ongoing maintenance, patches and upgrades. Businesses using I/O-heavy applications, such as databases and big data platforms, find significant value in bare metal dedicated hardware.

Thursday, 17 September 2020

Generally, a Server is a high-end network computer managing connected devices (“clients”) and their access to multiple applications as a central resource, whereas a Database is a repository that supports an application’s back-end data processing.

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What is a Server?

Depending on an organization’s network size, number of users, accessibility requirements, storage capacity etc., servers can be configured to manage one or more functions on the network.  Examples of different servers include:

◉ Database Server is a computer hosting one or several databases and manages the accessibility between client and data over a network.

◉ Web Server hosting web applications and managing accessibility, e.g. Microsoft IIS (Internet Information Server) or Apache.

◉ Mail Server that manages the email exchange for a business and is responsible for sending/receiving emails promptly.

◉ FTP Server stores files and facilitates easier file transfer (uploads and downloads) between connected devices over a local area network or remotely via an internet connection.

◉ A single server is also capable of managing several functions at once, as long as the hardware specifications meet the demands of the network.

◉ For large enterprise companies and data centers, servers are rack-mounted, and designed for a specific server function. Rack-mounted server are thin, using less space and advanced capabilities to hot-swop hard drives without disrupting the network.

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What is a Database?

◉ Database were initially “flat files” displaying simple columns and rows to store data, but today, databases are relational, allowing complex queries across multiple database tables and database sets.

◉ Relational databases provide users with greater use and flexibility to manage the data in the repository, using database programs such as Microsoft SQL and MySQL.

◉ A database comprises three elements to form a database management system (DMBS). The physical database is the repository, the database engine is the software allowing access to the data, and the database schema is the specified structure of the data.

◉ Databases can store most file types, including numeric, text, and multimedia and has a data structure to organize the stored information.

For example, in a company, an employee database table would have the relevant columns for personal details (Name, Surname, Address, etc) and a profile picture could also be stored for each employee, all residing the database.


◉ Virtualization is fast-becoming a popular option for larger organizations, where databases and servers can operate as virtual instances, in virtual environments.

◉ Resource intensive applications and tasks perform better with virtualization as multiple simulated environments are created.

◉ A Server can be virtualized providing multiple instances of the Server and a virtual Database can be be configured on a physical server or virtual server.

◉ Using entry-level databases and servers require a degree of computer literacy, the trend in graphical interfaces, specifically web-based, is making it more user-friendly to manage servers and databases without having to interfere with any hardware.

◉ In organizations, databases are usually managed by database administrators, database developers, and other database specialists, and servers are managed by network administrators and other network specialists.

◉ Servers and Databases are able to manage concurrent processing by multiple users, and have security features managing user rights and access.

◉ Both have backup, recovery, and redundancy capabilities.

◉ Based on software licensed options, upgrading a database version or server operating software is fairly simple with the latest systems providing user-friendly wizards that guide users through a version upgrade of the software.

The Main Difference Between a Server and Database

◉ Related information is collected, stored, and maintained in a Database and is primarily the data repository.

◉ A Server is a hardware unit managing multiple or specific functions for a network and connected clients.

Primary Functions

◉ Databases are used for storing data and organizations that transact and store large amounts of data, need powerful database software to manage the data, like Oracle or MS SQL.

◉ Databases provide more control over data and allow users to transform and enrich the data for all aspects of business reporting purposes and manage back-end transacting.

◉ Servers connected to a high-volume network, managing multiple and simultaneous transactions need to have the appropriate technical make-up to support the network efficiently.

Database Types

◉ Databases are implemented according to the current and expected volume of data. For individuals and home office users, desktop databases, like Microsoft Access, are suitable, but for larger, enterprise organizations, database systems are installed on servers or built on dedicated database servers.
◉ The type of database depends on the use requirements of the users, network, and organization. Database types include:

     ◉ A Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)
     ◉ An Operational Database allows users to transform the data in real-time, such as modify, delete, add, etc.
     ◉ NoSQL and Object-oriented databases follow a different approach to the table, row, column of the RDBMS, and stores data in chunks and simplifies the data manipulation and search functionalities.
     ◉ A Cloud Database is hosted typically in a remote data center, and access to the database is provided through a service with the cloud host.
     ◉ Big Data are databases that manage massive, complex data sets that goes beyond the capabilities of standard database software applications.

Server Types

◉ A Server is typically defined by its’ configuration and allocation as a dedicated resource, such as the following:

     ◉ A Database Server is a computer hosting one or several databases and manages the accessibility between client and data over a network.
     ◉ A Web Server, like Microsoft IIS (Internet Information Server) or Apache, hosts web applications and manages accessibility and interaction with the web content.
     ◉ A Mail Server manages the email exchange for a business and is responsible for sending/receiving emails promptly.
     ◉ A File Server is dedicated to storing all users’ file and network data files.
     ◉ A Print Server co-ordinates all connected printers, and manages user printing.
     ◉ A Domain Server manages the authentication and accessibility of connected devices on the network, physically and remotely.
     ◉ An FTP (File Transfer Protocol) Server stores files and facilitates easier file transfer (uploads and downloads) between connected devices which are on a local area network or remotely via an internet connection.

◉ A single server is also capable of managing several functions at once, as long as the hardware specifications are suited to the demands of the network.


◉ Based on licensed options, increasing the size of a database is fairly simple if using a DBMS like MS SQL, where the size of the log and data files can be increased, with limits from 2TB.

◉ To extend a server’s manufactured technical capability, an additional investment in hardware and memory would be required.


◉ Migration can be a complex task that requires careful planning when moving an entire server configuration or database system to a new platform, such as a new hardware unit to replace an old server, or moving a database system to the cloud.

◉ For server migration, it is practical to recreate the old (required parts) of the server configuration on a new hardware unit, and requires thorough testing and generally some tweaking.

◉ Database migrations to a new software platform have many challenges with new and different features, compatible data formats, and schemas, etc.

◉ A lock down on changes to the database would be required before migration to avoid having different versions of the same database, and once the new database has been implemented, it is then released into the production environment.

Monday, 14 September 2020

Domain, Email hosting, Web hosting, Compare Web Hosting, Web Hosting Reviews

Since there’s a lot of confusion around the topic of domains, web hosting and email hosting, we’ll quickly review these three types of online hosting.

Domain Hosting and Registration

Domain hosts store domain names and facilitate their registration. First, you register a domain like with a domain registrar, and just like a street address, the URL directs people to your website's location. If you’re using a domain registered through a third-party provider, that company is your domain host.

For your website to appear online, you need actual file hosting. You’ll often find domain and web hosting offered as a package, with most companies offering domain, email, and web hosting as a bundle.

Web Hosting

Web Hosting is a service that provides computer resources such as server space, memory, and bandwidth needed for your website files to live on the internet. Users can create and store website content on a web hosts servers so it can be viewed online via a web browser.

If you imagine a website plus all its content as a store, a web host simply provides the physical space to display the store’s products—in this case, the website content including the text, images, videos and anything else that make up the site's content.

There are different styles of hosting available to reflect the needs of different websites. Web hosting plans range from shared hosting with multiple sites sharing a single server to dedicated hosting, in which one customer uses an entire server’s space and bandwidth.

Email Hosting

Email hosting is a service in which your email messages and associated files are all stored on a server. When you receive an email to your website’s domain address, the email is routed across the internet and stored on the recipient server. At this point, the server administrators will determine which action to take (reply or ignore) bearing in mind any spam filters, re-routing requests and if the sender is on any blacklists.

The server hosting email can be the same server that’s hosting your website content, a server managed by another host, or two different servers managed by the same hosting company. Email hosting providers might specialize in offering only email hosting services, but it’s more typical for companies to offer bundled emails and web hosting packages these days.

Friday, 11 September 2020

Free Web-hosting, Email Web Hosting, Web Hosting Reviews, Hosting Guides

Web-hosting email services allow you to send and receive mail and manage email accounts through webmail (POP) and email clients (IMAP). Free email account include Gmail and Yahoo, to name a few. There’s an abundance of free email hosting options that you are probably already familiar with: Google’s Gmail, Microsoft’s Hotmail, Yahoo and AOL are household names.


◉ Free with no commitment or contract

◉ Free email services typically include enough file storage to meet the needs of small businesses and individuals


◉ Might have irritating banners, or on/off page advertisements

◉ Weaker security measures

◉ Redundant help and customer support options

◉ Visitors doubt your authenticity

◉ Less cloud storage space

◉ No personalized domain name ( leading to difficult to remember, long and unbranded email addresses.

Wednesday, 9 September 2020

ASP Web Hosting, Web Hosting, Web Hosting Reviews, Compare Web Hosting

ASP web hosting refers to web hosting companies who provide support for ASP, or Active Server Page.

What is ASP?

ASP/Active Server Pages are HTML pages with embedded ASP scripts. ASP scripts are processed on the server before the page is sent to the visitor's browser. ASP allows you to create dynamic database driven pages, a visitor can access data in a database and interact with page objects such as Active X or Java components.

How does ASP work?

When you type in a URL in the Address Box of your browser, you are asking the web server to send the file to your computer. If the file is standard HTML, then the file that your web browser receives will look exactly the same as it did on the web server. However, if an ASP file is sent to your computer from the server, it first runs the HTML code, then the ASP code. The ASP code could be anything such as the current time, date, or other such information.

How to find an ASP web host?

You will need to find a web host who will host your website on a Windows server. It is safer to host your ASP pages on a Windows server as they are more stable and most ASP components work specific to Windows. You also need to consider if your website uses a database, such as SQL and Access. Make sure your web host provides support for the type of database your website requires.



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